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Publications

Introducing barley for mixing with wheat flour to bridge the cereal yield gap in Egypt

12 Jun 2021
Egyptian wheat production stands at just over 8.8 million tons and yet the country remains the largest wheat importer bringing in 12.5 million tons annually at an estimated value of US$ 2.1 billion. With a population around 100 million and bread remaining the main staple food – particularly for the country’s poor – dependence on this crop, and its consumption, remains high. Around 70 percent of the population benefit from a food subsidy program where people receive five loafs of baladi bread per day at a price of EGP 0.05 (around US$ 0.003) per day. Through this system, bakeries are subsidized for the difference in costs, and for the fiscal year 2018/19, the Egyptian Government allocated USD 4.8 billion to the bread and food subsidy schemes1 . Wheat production is a key priority as a crucial economic and food security concern, and as of October 2018, Egypt maintained wheat reserves sufficient to cover its needs for 4.3 months2 . Egypt has dedicated significant efforts to improve the situation mainly through efforts to improve wheat productivity. With the introduction of new varieties and improved production technologies including raised-bed technology for increased water efficiency, the wheat yield has become among the highest in the region. Despite these gains, the potential to bridge the yield gap is constrained by the decreasing water availability in the country partly associated with the effects of climate change coupled with the raising demand due to an increasing population. The area of land suitable for this crop is also limited. In light of this challenge, new ways of closing the yield gap and increasing the production of bread are being explored including addressing wheat demand. Mixing barley into the flour mix for baladi bread has come up as a promising alternative due to the crop’s suitability for production in marginal lands under rainfed conditions. In addition to that, barley has benefits including high nutrition values, resilience to climate change (adaptability to drought, salinity and heat), low cost of production compared to other cereals, and potential to support livestock productivity through its high yield and quality of straw for livestock, and grain for chicken and sheep. If gradually introduced to reach scale, the inclusion of barley in the baladi bread flour mix would provide significant economic benefits of closing the wheat yield gap as the current levels of wheat imports and related subsidies are placing a heavy toll on the Egyptian economy, while at the same time generating employment and rural livelihoods. The introduction of around 20 percent barley in composite flour would entail the need for an associated development and expansion of barley production in Egypt. To produce an additional 200-250,000 tons of barley, an area of up to 75,000 ha is needed. Due to the relatively lower water requirements of barley compared to wheat, rather than expanding on lands dedicated for wheat, barley could gradually be introduced on marginal and reclaimed lands with supplementary irrigation, as well as on irrigated lands with high salinity. Such an expansion of barley production would ensure a higher level of national self-sufficiency of cereals, while maintaining the natural resource base and adapting to climate change, especially in comparison to an alternative scenario for expansion of wheat production.
keywords
barley, cereal yield, egypt, stakeholders

Publications

Video Toolkit: Management Resources & Lessons Learned from the MEL team - Annex E

11 Jun 2021
This spreadsheet contains the following templates with examples that may be used in the video-making process: (1) Feedback: This tab provides a template for gathering feedback on your draft video from a diverse audience, organizing feedback by section of the video, commenter, category, and timestamp. The template may be duplicated to be reused for several versions of feedback. (2) Footage: This tab contains a template for organizing footage you would like to use in your video, and tracking the permissions permitting you to use that footage (3) Logos: This tab contains a template for tracking permissions to use logos
keywords
project management, video

Publications

Video Toolkit: Management Resources & Lessons Learned from the MEL team

11 Jun 2021
This document is a learning product that provides management guidance to project and program staff who wish to produce a video, based on experience and lessons learned by MEL Team members who have produced videos. This video toolkit goes through the typical stages of making a video, providing advice and templates to the reader.
keywords
project management, video

Publications

Cactus pear fruit production

09 Jun 2021
Arid lands are less suitable for crop production that requires substantial water. Under these conditions, certain species such as spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.), which has a high fruit/fodder value and economic importance, can grow well and help to enhance the livelihood of the poor farmers. There is a need increase the awareness of the importance of this crop which can be considered as an ideal option to increase farmers' income by increasing the economic water productivity under semi-arid conditions. This is one of series of videos developed to boost awareness and enhance the knowledge about cactus pear crop. In this demonstrating the best agronomic practices to improve productivity and enhance the quality of fruit prediction of cactus pear.
keywords
cactus pear, fruit production, fruit quality, fruit thinning

Publications

إنتاج الثمار في نبات الصبار (الهندي الاملس)

09 Jun 2021
Arid lands are less suitable for crop production that requires substantial water. Under these conditions, certain species such as spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.), which has a high fruit/fodder value and economic importance, can grow well and help to enhance the livelihood of the poor farmers. There is a need increase the awareness of the importance of this crop which can be considered as an ideal option to increase farmers' income by increasing the economic water productivity under semi-arid conditions. This is one of series of videos developed to boost awareness and enhance the knowledge about cactus pear crop. In this demonstrating the best agronomic practices to improve productivity and enhance the quality of fruit prediction of cactus pear. This video is produced in Arabic to reach the more audience in 25 Arab speaking countries.
keywords
cactus pear, fruit production, fruit quality, fruit thinning

Publications

المتطلبات البيئية وتقنيات غراسة نبات الصبار (التين الشوكي / الهندي الأملس)

09 Jun 2021
Arid lands are less suitable for crop production that requires substantial water. Under these conditions, certain species such as spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.), which has a high fruit/fodder value and economic importance, can grow well and help to enhance the livelihood of the poor farmers. There is a need increase the awareness of the importance of this crop which can be considered as an ideal option to increase farmers' income by increasing the economic water productivity under semi-arid conditions. This is one of series of videos developed to boost awareness and enhance the knowledge about cactus pear crop. This video is demonstrating in detail the best agronomic practices that are needed to develop better crop production and establishment. This video is produced in Arabic to reach the more audience in 25 Arab speaking countries.
keywords
cactus pear, fodder production, frost damage, fruit production, irrigation

Publications

المتطلبات البيئية وتقنيات غراسة نبات الصبار (التين الشوكي / الهندي الأملس) "نسخة مختصرة"

09 Jun 2021
Arid lands are less suitable for crop production that requires substantial water. Under these conditions, certain species such as spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.), which has a high fruit/fodder value and economic importance, can grow well and help to enhance the livelihood of the poor farmers. There is a need increase the awareness of the importance of this crop which can be considered as an ideal option to increase farmers' income by increasing the economic water productivity under semi-arid conditions. This is one of series of videos developed to boost awareness and enhance the knowledge about cactus pear crop. This is a short version video in which we are demonstrating the best agronomic practices that are needed to develop better crop production and establishment. This video is produced in Arabic to reach the more audience in 25 Arab speaking countries.
keywords
cactus pear, fodder production, frost damage, fruit production, irrigation

Publications

Developing a toolbox for rangeland restoration/rehabilitation in arid environments

03 Jun 2021
Rangelands are recognized for their importance and value in providing society with valuable products and ecosystem services. In such ecosystems, effective management is needed for sustainable plant growth and survival in a context characterized by rainfall unreliability, poor soil nutrient status and high uncontrolled grazing. Therefore, cost-effective techniques/tools for slowing down and eventually reversing this degradation are needed. This paper promotes the identification and association of various tools for degraded arid ecosystems as strate-gies aimed at rangeland restoration/ rehabilitation. These strategies are founded on science-based evidence and experienced practitioners. For arid rangelands, the preference of applying an isolated rehabilitation technique may not halt degradation since the heterogeneity of the geomorphology, even at micro scale, and the landscape re-quires very often the use of different tools. For instance, direct seeding in degraded rangelands needs to be com-bined with soil scarification, when the crust dominates the soil surface, to reactivate the soil water retention and increase seedling emergence and germination possibilities. To achieve this goal, rehabilitation options identified for a specific degraded rangeland need to be holistically integrated with land degradation indicators in a manual-style decision support system for the long-term sustainable production of rangelands in arid environments.
keywords
dry areas, land degradation, restoration, sustainable rangeland management

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Strengthening Knowledge Management for Greater Development Effectiveness in the Near East, North Africa, Central Asia and Europe (SKiM) is a grant project funded by IFAD and led by ICARDA, collaborating with partners CIHEAM-Bari, PROCASUR, Virginia Tech and NARS, governments, academia, extension services in Moldova, Morocco and Sudan.

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